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Industry Scorecard - Ground Handlers


The E-Freight Industry Value Chain

Shipper  Forwarder  Ground HandlerAirline Customs Broker  |  Trucker  Consignee










  • Less printing/copying of documents as documents are digitized (financial & environmental)
  • Less data-entry activities as majority information is received with electronic messages (financial)
  • Less mistakes at data-entry as information is received with electronic messages (financial & quality)
  • Less delays due to missing documentation as information is always electronically available (quality)
  • Less walking traffic (between office and warehouse) due to no paper and only internal communication by messaging provided that own cargo handling system is used on mobile desks or HHTs (financial & operational)
  • Shorter through-put time of freight in warehouse as documents are received in advance (financial & operational)
  • GHAs receive timely data from airlines required for operational & planning requirements
  • Reduce manual data input error and mistake compare to paper mode.
  • Reduce paper storage replaced by electronic storage and can be retrieved quickly when required.
  •  Improve communication between airline,  forwarders/shippers and GHAs
  • Able to exchange booking and shipment status between airline in FSU message or C2K Route map
  • Enable GHA to re-use the data at source to improve internal operational processes



eAWB (Benefits to GHA)

  • Increased throughput capacity from reduction in process time for AWB entry

  • Availability of AWB data for Advance Customs Information filing or Customs risk assessment purposes reduces strain on operations near the flight departure time.

  • Chances of errors and penalties resulting from these errors are reduced.

  • Availability of shipment information for security screening requirements such as Regulated Cargo Agent Regime (RCAR)

  • Speed, accuracy, efficiency & productivity in removal of manual data capture from paper AWB.



  • Reduced cost of handling paper CSD


  • Reduction in pouches to handle and archive
  • Reduce document handling costs for shipper, forwarder, GHA and airline.
  • Encourage e-Customs and increase number of automatic clearance shipment percentage.
  • Improve shipment overall cycle time with e-Customs and no more document missing.
  • Environmentally friendly with less paper usage.
  • Advance information in electronic format as per IATA standard (to include legality of electronic signature) will help the GHA to automate the acceptance check. For example, the system accuracy checks of the Shipper’s Dangerous Goods Declaration for freight acceptance. The electronic declaration data could be transmitted to upstream or downline stations and this will help remove the need to uplift this paper document.  Also, the availability of system e-DGR will facilitate investigation in the event of emergency response due to accidents/incidents as such single piece of document could be lost, due to too many users requiring the same document.


  •   Better information on hand for Advanced customs submissions

This is not classified in the freight forwarder pouch but usually in the airline flight document bag for uplift on flight). Digitizing the MAWB would facilitate GHA handling if all handled Airlines cutover to e-AWB, as not all airlines are sending the FWB to GHA unless they have cutover to e-AWB. This will remove the need for manual data capture, reduce errors and improve productivity if the FWB data are received.  For transit shipments, if FWB data or e-AWB is received it will facilitate the quick transfer of cargo for connection without need to wait for the paper AWB for connection and uplift.

  •  Better information availability for security declarations at destination

    This is part of Freight Forwarder pouch document. FHL is the electronic version if sent by the freight forwarders and sent by the Airlines to GHA will remove data entry required for specific Customs requirements such as US AMS requirements, etc.

If FHL is received by GHA, for checks and archiving, then it will facilitate easy retrieval in the event of security, emergency due incident/accidents investigation across the supply chain.




Flight Manifest Less paper handling.

GHAs are already sending or receiving the electronic version of FFM to/from airlines/GHA for use in its operational handling. It helps to remove the need to print different sets of requirements by Customs or airline needs at the final destination.  This benefits the GHA as more papers are removed from the need to print and photocopy for uplift.  Productivity is enhanced.

Export Goods/Export Cargo Declaration – GHA facilitate the Customs clearance for export and risk assessment by enhancing and implementing system interface with Customs for a seamless and transparent process before freight acceptance. 

Transit Declaration: GHA if received advance shipment information, the facilitation of transfer and transfer cycle time could be reduced as some shipments requiring transit authority approval could be obtained in advance.

Freight Book List – This information is one of the basic requirements that facilitates the GHA on the freight acceptance and reduce manual data entries for flight planning and build-up if e-FBL is received in advance.

Cites Certificate (not classified as Freight Forwarder pouch document): This document is required to be presented to the GHA to check for live animals that require original CITES certificate before freight acceptance.  The same document is required to be uplifted on the flight for the final destination or transit station.  If such document could be digitized in a global standard format, it will facilitate the paper removal during acceptance. 







1. Requirements local authorities
2. IT readiness:

No message has been developed yet
The message was developed, but we do not receive it from the airline
The message was developed and is being received from the airline, but the content is not complete and/or correct
The message was developed and is being received from the airline, but the airline cannot send updates
The distribution of the messages from the cargo handling system to the airline takes too long (being tackled at the moment)
The cargo handling system cannot print the message in the required format (being tackled at the moment)

o No clarity on some aspects of our future internal e-Cargo process, especially with respect to exceptions and irregularities (being clarified at the moment)

  • Dual operational handling process as not all GHAs handled airlines have started e-AWB bilateral or multi-lateral agreement with their freight forwarders.
  • Airlines that have started e-AWB in their HQ station has yet to roll out e-AWB in GHA e-ready handled station.
  • Not all stations/countries has rectified MC99 to accept paper-free MAWB and some still requires to carry the paper on board for airlines flying to stations under Warsaw Convention.

    E-AWB refers to only the replacement of MAWB but the h
    ouse manifest is being overlooked to make it mandatory for the FHL messages to be sent if shipment contents reflect as consolidated cargo. The challenges is for the GHA to still rely on the paper house manifest instead of the electronic FHL data that is not received for checking hidden DG as well as certain Customs requirements.

    Flight Manifest –The challenges faced is that despite the electronic version available, some airlines still insist on printing sets of documents for their internal filing requirements or uplift for final destination.

    Transfer Manifest – No IATA format in view to facilitate the transfer of shipments using electronic TRM that replaces the paper multi-colored copies from one GHA handled airline to another.

    Security Declaration – Unless e-CSD is adopted as the common global standard requirement e.g. US, EU requirements, it will be difficult for the industry to adopt as too many variation with little benefit.

    Freight Book List – Not all airlines sends the FBL message as some are still providing the booked list either via fax, email or hard copies. Airlines that are not complying with this requirement have been engaged but the progress although moving is slow to adopt by all handled airlines.


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